Projects

Please click below to view CEL’s past and present projects by End Date, Start Date, Sponsor, or search for a particular project by keyword.

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Projects by End Date (Most recent first)

Reviewing Industry Operating Experience with Large Screen Displays


Partner: NSERC Engage
Dates: 2013 - 2013

Triggering Adaptive Changes in Mobile Process Operations


Partner: ABB
Dates: - Present
Description: In partnership with ABB Canada, we seek to increase understanding of applying adaptive automation to complex workplace. The application context is mobile applications and services to support knowledge workers in the process industries. We will extend the Ecological Interface Design framework to determine appropriate cues to trigger changes based on the state of the process or automation and the state and location of the worker. Through experimentation we will investigate the impact of adaptive human-machine interfaces on task efficacy, ease of use, operator acceptance, and development and maintenance of operator expertise. The work will contribute to the academic understanding of the interaction challenges, design methods, and performance benefits of adaptive interfaces.
The project will deliver innovative mobile interaction concepts, coupled with end-user evaluations, to the world's largest controls company. A range of Canadian industries could benefit from deployment of the new knowledge.

Supporting Situation Awareness and Collaboration in Nuclear Power Plant Operations: The Role of Large-Screen Displays


Partner: Candu Energy Inc., NSERC
Dates: June 2014 - December 2015
Participants: Zhunussova, A., Cole, W., Jamieson, G. A., Kortschot, Sean, Myers, W.
Description: This project is focused on providing evidence against the claimed benefits of Large-Screen Displays (LSDs) and supporting the effective design of LSDs for the nuclear power industry. The research objectives are:
1. Test the claim that LSDs support process operator situation awareness.
2. Test the claim that LSDs support effective crew collaboration.
3. Test and extend recent developments in Team Cognitive Work Analysis.
4. Extend the Ecological Interface Design framework for application to the design of LSDs.
5. Identify LSD information content, structure and forms that contribute to operator situation awareness and collaboration.

The HMI solutions will be evaluated in the industry partner’s main control room (MCR) mock-up. Representative operating tasks will be selected to simulate operating contexts requiring either high levels of SA or close collaboration. Measures of operator and crew performance, SA and collaboration will be taken and analyzed statistically to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the HMIs with respect to the claimed benefits of LSDs.

Design for Situation Awareness in Future Power Grid Operations


Partner: Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO)
Dates: April 2015 - November 2015
Participants: Jamieson, G., Hilliard, A., Tran, F.
Description: Independent System Operators (ISO's) must reliably and efficiently operate power grid and energy markets for their jurisdictions. Human operators monitor increasing amounts of data (e.g. interconnected neighbouring grids), and control disjointed grid and market information systems. These new information needs are often addressed by adding displays to the existing control room or adding operator tasks to reconcile data inconsistencies. A more promising solution is to research and develop more compact, multi-scope interface features.

We are: 1) conducting a Cognitive Work Analysis of reliability and market operations, informed by interviews and field observations; 2) designing a wide-area grid reliability monitoring concept, evaluated with a controlled experiment, and 3) designing a display concept for integrating system and market information, evaluated using tabletop discussions. The resulting work analysis and display concepts will contribute to knowledge of human performance and visualization techniques for power grid monitoring.
Publications:

View PDF Hilliard, A., Tran, F., & Jamieson, G. A., "A Graphic Form with Emergent Properties for Monitoring Renewable Generation Stations", Resilience Week (RWS), TBD, 2016.

Discovering Adaptive Interpretation Strategies for Monitoring and Targeting in Energy Management


Partner: Energent Inc., NSERC Engage, FedDev Ontario
Dates: August 2011 - April 2015
Participants: Jamieson, G., Hilliard, A.
Description: The business practice of monitoring energy use and targeting energy performance improvements has recently enjoyed a resurgence of interest. While the principles underlying energy Monitoring and Targeting (M&T) have endured, information support systems have had a mixed track record of effectiveness and longevity. To investigate opportunities for innovation, users of M&T software were observed in their workplaces, and their experiences, opinions, and behaviours documented. Results were used to develop a Cognitive Work Analysis of MT&R information requirements, knowledge products, and interpretation strategies. A design application extended industry-standard Cumulative Sum of Residuals (CUSUM) charts with a more contemporary statistical change detection strategy, Recursive Parameter
Estimates, modified to better suit the M&T task using Representation Aiding principles. The design was experimentally evaluated in a controlled M&T synthetic task, and was shown to significantly improve diagnosis performance.
Publications:

View PDF Hilliard, A. (2015). "Energy Monitoring and Targeting as diagnosis; Applying work analysis to adapt a statistical change detection strategy using representation aiding" (Ph.D.). University of Toronto (Canada), Ann Arbor. Retrieved from Dissertations & Theses @ University of Toronto; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1759161412)

View PDF Hilliard, A., Jamieson, G. A., & Jorjani, D. (2014). "Communicating a Model-Based Energy Performance Indicator." Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications, 22(4), 21–29.

View PDF Hilliard, A., & Jamieson, G. A. (2014). "A Strategy-Based Ecological(?) Display for Time-Series Structural Change Diagnosis." In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (pp. 353–358). San Diego, CA: IEEE.

View PDF Hilliard, A., & Jamieson, G. A. (2014). "Monitoring & Targeting Energy in Practice: A Field Study." In Proceedings of the 2014 ECEEE Summer Study in Industry (pp. 591–601). Arnhem, NL: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. Retrieved from http://www.eceee.org/library

View PDF Hilliard, A., & Jamieson, G. A. (2013). "Recursive Estimates as an Extension to CUSUM-based Energy Monitoring & Targeting". In Proceedings of the 2013 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry (pp. 4–1..4–13). Niagara Falls, NY: ACEEE. Retrieved from http://aceee.org/files/proceedings/2013/data/papers/4_094.pdf

Research on Diagnosis Performance Influencing Factors in Main Control Rooms


Dates: September 2013 - April 2014
Participants: Chen, K.
Description: The research focuses on the potential factors that shape the diagnosis performance of operators in digitalized main control room. After accomplishing the first experiment for the research in China, I am visiting CEL to design experiment platform for the second experiment in my research, aiming to investigate the influence of information organization and relevance on diagnosis performance. It’s expected that an ecological interface for a hypothetical power plant is developed. The work domain analysis for the target ecological interface design has so far been done under the supervision of Prof. Jamieson. The work that follows is interface design and further experiment design. Actual or potential applications of this research include improved understanding of the influence of interface factors on how operators diagnose unfamiliar problems, which should help in the design of better interfaces.

AECL 12 — Local to Mobile Devices for Nuclear Operations


Partner: AECL
Dates: January 2012 - Unknown 2013
Participants: Lee, G.
Description: The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, located in Chalk River Laboratories has implemented a new mobile device to help Operators collect instrument data in the field. Components in the field display instrument readings through various analog and digital devices. Before the change, Operators collected readings via a paper and pen method. Now with the implementation of the mobile device, Operators scan a barcode and input the instrument’s reading using a keyboard and touchscreen. To understand the factors that influence Operator acceptance of the new technology, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used to identify determinants that have the biggest impact on the Operators’ intention to use the mobile device. The TAM results identified the determinants that were most influential and the mobile interface was redesigned based on the TAM results. Once the interfaces were redesigned they were evaluated through a usability study that compared the original interface with the newly designed screens. The results showed slightly more positive results for the redesigned interface, but overall no statistically significant differences between the screens.

Large-screen displays in nuclear power plant control


Partner: Candu Energy Inc., NSERC
Dates: April 2013 - October 2013
Participants: Jamieson, G., Myers, W.
Collaborator: Halden Reactor Project
Description: The purpose of this project was to examine operating experience with large-screen displays (LSDs) in nuclear power generation and peer domains, including process control and command and control. The project consisted of a review of the literature and interviews with subject-matter experts (SMEs), including operators, interface designers, industry human factors practitioners, human factors researchers, and regulators. We found weak evidence that the theorized benefits of LSDs to operator situation awareness, communication, and collaboration are realized in practice. SMEs were not in agreement about the need for large-screen displays across domains and the strategies that enable their effectiveness. The findings of this review have implications for the design of LSDs and underscore the need for further study in nuclear power generation and peer domains.

Level of Automation Effects on Situation Awareness and Functional Specificity in Automation Reliance


Dates: September 2009 - April 2012
Participants: Smith, A.

Usability and Design of ecobee Accessory Products for Residential and Commercial Energy Use


Partner: FedDev ARC, ecobee Inc.
Dates: August 2011 - March 2012
Participants: Stein, J.
Description: This project was a joint venture between the Critical Making Lab (Faculty of Information) and ecobee Inc., funded in part by the Federal Economic Development (FedDev) Agency of Southern Ontario. It explored user experience and interaction with media that informs users of their thermal and electrical energy consumption habits, and their subsequent behavioural adjustments. We were interested in understanding what kids of information users need in order to make effective decisions with respect to their energy use. We ran a usability study on a current state-of-the-art home energy-monitoring device and additional smart plugs and sensors, as well as a ‘critical making’ session (participatory-design style focus group). The latter explored (through participant perspective-taking) issues of rational versus social decision making, user preferences for automation versus personal control, and the role of heterogeneous family dynamics in home-energy management. The findings will inform ecobee’s product development strategies, as well as stimulate development in new problem spaces in home energy management.

Ecological Interface Design for a Water Monitoring Decision Aid


Dates: September 2009 - Unknown 2011
Participants: Kan, K.

Mine Traffic Optimization


Partner: Barrick Gold Inc., MITAC Accelerate, Queen’s University
Dates: April 2010 - December 2011
Participants: Stahl, P.
Collaborator: Mike Borg, Matt Ratto
Description: The original project was a collaborative endeavour between the University of Toronto, Queen’s University, and Barrick Gold Corporation. Between 2010 and 2012, the team identified the potential for optimizing the efficiency, productivity and safety of haul traffic in open pit mines. CEL emphasized the Human Factors challenges in open pit traffic, a novel domain for the HF discourse. Largely based on the data of two field trips, the two major problems of operator fatigue and distraction and human-automation interaction became the focus of the research effort.

The continuation of the project (beginning in 2012) concentrates on two instances of human-automation interaction in the mine. The first is the interaction between equipment/vehicle operators and the dispatch automation via an interface mounted in the cabins. The second is the interaction between the dispatch operator and the dispatch automation via the dispatching interface. In order to improve the interaction for equipment operators, we will investigate ways for operators to input first hand knowledge about the current mine state into the dispatch system. Giving them the opportunity to input information that is not currently available to the dispatch automation could increase dispatch effectiveness and efficiency.

Improvements with respect to the dispatching interface will be based on a functional analysis of the current system. The use of Cognitive Work Analysis to this end will ensure a system description from an ecological, formative perspective. This description, and especially system and operator requirements, will then feed into the design of an ecological interface.

IFE 07 — Situation Awareness in Process Control


Partner: Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), NSERC
Dates: March 2007 - August 2011
Participants: Jamieson, G., Lau, N.
Description: Situation Awareness (SA) is a theoretical construct concerning the knowledge of the situation that could impact operator decision-making and control actions. Although there are controversies in the theoretical basis of SA, it seems practical to assess operator SA as knowledge of the situation, which is intuitively necessary to operate systems effectively.

In a previous study [SRO 04], we found that existing SA models do not provide the foundation to formulate operational definitions and to derive measurements for the process control domain. These theoretical models, while useful to communicate high level findings, often exclude complexities and details pertinent to the domain tasks performed by operators. Moreover, they often include a host of cognitive aspects associated with tasks from unrelated domains. In effect, operational definitions based on such models cannot provide any precise descriptions of the cognitive processes engaged by process control operators in acquiring SA.

We examined the SA concept specific for process control based on (i) technical and operational properties of process plants, and (ii) field observations on situation assessment activities of control room operators. We described SA in process control as Process Overview, Scenario Understanding, and Meta-cognitive Accuracy based on plant operator monitoring, diagnosis, and self-regulating activities to acquire SA, respectively. The literature indicates that process operators engage in cognitive activities resembling problem solving (in contrast to information processing) to acquire SA.

Based on the SA descriptions for process control, we applied Process Overview to guide the methodological adaptation of two extant SA measures – Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique and Situation Awareness Control Room Inventory – into the Process Overview Measure for assessing the knowledge product from monitoring process plants. The empirical basis of the Process Overview Measure is developed through two full-scope simulator and two controlled experiments. The empirical results of the four studies provide the most substantial evaluation for a single SA measure for process control, indicating that the Process Overview Measure is a valuable measurement tool for advancing empirical research on human performance related to SA and evaluation of control room technology and operational concepts.

Applying Temporal Construal Theory in Energy Conservation


Partner: SSHRC
Dates: May 2009 - September 2010
Participants: Jamieson, G., Trinh, K.
Collaborator: Adam Smith, Angela Loder, Luke Gelinas, Beth Savan, Ingrid A. Stefanovich
Description: Visceral influences hinder energy conservation in the home but are relatively understudied. This study tested temporal construal theory (TCT) as a unifying explanation for two explanations of visceral influences: the hot-system/cool-system framework and the hyperbolic discount theory. We introduced a conceptual framework based on TCT that delineated four behavioural intervention strategies used to promote energy conservation. To improve feedback design for visceral reactions, we proposed two inter-temporal choice design heuristics and demonstrated their application. Our conceptual framework and design heuristics provide designers with tools to think about behavioural intervention options and how they target conservation-deterring factors.

DRDC 07 — Interface Design for an Automated Combat Identification System: Displaying Reliability Information


Partner: DRDC
Dates: September 2007 - September 2009
Participants: Jamieson, G., Hollands, J., Neyedli, H.
Description: Automated combat identification (CID) systems play a role in preventing friendly fire; however, these systems are not perfectly reliable. Earlier work performed by CEL (DRDC 06 — Supporting Appropriate Trust in Automated Combat Identification Systems) showed that informing participants of system reliability improved reliance on the automated system.

The purpose of this project was to design and test interfaces to display reliability information of a rifle-mounted CID system. The display had to indicate the identity of the potential target (friendly soldier, or ‘unknown’) as well as the reliability that the ‘unknown’ feedback indicated the presence of an enemy combatant. The designed displays varied along two factors. The first was whether the proportional reliability information was displayed using a pie chart or a partially filled mesh grid. The second was whether the identity and reliability information were integrated or separated from each other within the display. The displays were implemented in the IMMERSIVE combat simulation environment and participants were presented with a potential target and had limited time to decide whether to shoot the potential target or not.

The results showed that participants relied on the automation more appropriately with the integrated display than with the separated display. This result indicates that integrating the reliability information with the identity information increased the use of the reliability information during the task. Participants were more sensitive in identifying targets when using the mesh display compared to the pie chart. This result indicates the participants may have been able to gain information more quickly from the mesh display allowing the participant more time to inspect the target. The results from this study can also inform on display design in other time-pressured domains.

PRECARN 07A — Interface Development for a Sensor-Integrated Water Monitoring System


Partner: Precarn Inc.
Dates: January 2007 - September 2009
Participants: Jamieson, G., Vary, B.
Collaborator: A.U.G Signals Ltd., Toronto Water and Wastewater Services, Queen's University, Public Health Agency of Canada, University of Calgary
Description: Currently, the information readily accessible to Toronto Water operators does not support a rapid response to contamination events. Water samples are taken at a limited number of locations and at infrequent time intervals. In addition, the samples are tested for only a select number of contaminants and operators can wait up to several months for the test results.

The purpose of this project is to develop a graphical interface for an Intelligent Situation Assessment Unit (ISAU) that will use sensor-integration technology to detect contaminants in the City of Toronto’s water system. Not only will the interface utilize real-time and historical sensor data, but it will also incorporate external non-sensor information, such as customer water quality complaints. With this integrated information, the operator will be better able to rapidly respond to natural, accidental and intentional contamination events.

AMPCO 08 — Energy Management in Large Ontario Enterprises: A Field Study


Partner: The Association of Major Power Consumers of Ontario (AMPCO), AITIA Analytics, OCE, NSERC
Dates: September 2008 - January 2009
Participants: Jamieson, G., Hilliard, A.
Description: This study was comprised of interviews with energy managers, consultants, and program developers about work in large manufacturing enterprises in order to discover opportunities for Human Factors contributions to energy management practice. The information management and organizational challenges experienced in these sophisticated environments may indicate future mainstream challenges in a “smart grid,” low-carbon energy economy. Participants reported challenges in data maintenance, energy modeling, and availability of software. Social challenges included difficulties in simultaneously motivating employees, persuading executive managers, and collaborating with colleagues. Findings were presented at two conferences and as a technical report, and informed subsequent research.
Publications:

View PDF Hilliard, A., & Jamieson, G. A. (2014). "Monitoring & Targeting Energy in Practice: A Field Study." In Proceedings of the 2014 ECEEE Summer Study in Industry (pp. 591–601). Arnhem, NL: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. Retrieved from http://www.eceee.org/library

View PDF Hilliard, A., & Jamieson, G. A. (2013). "Recursive Estimates as an Extension to CUSUM-based Energy Monitoring & Targeting". In Proceedings of the 2013 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry (pp. 4–1..4–13). Niagara Falls, NY: ACEEE. Retrieved from http://aceee.org/files/proceedings/2013/data/papers/4_094.pdf

View PDF Hilliard, A., & Jamieson, G.A. (2009). Energy management in large enterprises: A field study. (CEL 09-01). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Hilliard, A., & Jamieson, G. A., "Energy Management in Large Enterprises: A Field Study, " Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, pp.399-403, 2011.

PRECARN 07B — Ecological Interface Design for the Intelligent Drinking Water Monitoring System


Partner: Precarn Inc./A.U.G. Signals, Sustainable Development Technology Canada
Dates: January 2007 - January 2009
Participants: Jamieson, G., Vary, B., Kan, K.
Collaborator: A.U.G. Signals Ltd., Toronto Water and Wastewater Services – City of Toronto, Queen’s University, Public Health Agency of Canada, University of Calgary
Description: Contamination events in water distribution networks are difficult to detect in a timely manner using current methods, which rely on manual sampling and laboratory testing. To provide earlier contamination warnings, the Intelligent Drinking Water Monitoring System (IDWMS) automatically samples water from distribution networks and analyzes it for anomalies.

The goal of this project was to design a graphical display for the IDWMS that helps water distribution operators understand and use the system to detect contamination events. The Ecological Interface Design approach was used to model the IDWMS and identify the necessary information content for the display, and to present the information using appropriate graphic forms.

The first phase of the project also included a Control Task Analysis that was based on field observations and interviews with operators at a water utility control centre. The resulting display prototype, which presented IDWMS sensor readings and detection results, was evaluated with operators in a usability study.

The second phase of the project revised the prototype to provide more detailed information about the system’s capability in order to foster appropriate operator reliance. A visualization for the IDWMS’s sensor fusion algorithm (Dempster’s rule of combination) was created to help operators identify situations in which the algorithm could produce misleading results, This graphical representation of Dempster’s rule was evaluated in a signal detection task performed by university students, and was found to have little benefit in supporting appropriate reliance on the algorithm’s results, Results of this researt≥ ch may help determine the applicability of ecological displays to helping operators appropriately rely upon decision aids in their decision-making.

GREEN 06 — Consumer Demand Management


Partner: NSERC
Dates: November 2006 - June 2008
Participants: Jamieson, G., Flemming, S.
Description: Canadians make up one of the world’s largest consumer groups; the Living Planet Report (2006) announced that Canadian consumption has led its citizens to become the owners of the fourth-largest per capita “ecological footprint” in the world. A method of increasing consumer awareness about the impact of this behaviour is of great importance. It is proposed that this will be achieved by supplying the true economic and environmental impact of individual and/or household consumption in a meaningful and timely fashion. Differing forms and methods of supplying this information are being explored to determine the most intelligible and intuitive way to represent said information with the goal of curbing Canadian citizens’ burgeoning consumption behaviour.

SIM 06 — Guiding Simulator Fidelity and Design with Cognitive Work Analysis


Partner: NSERC
Dates: October 2006 - September 2007
Participants: Jamieson, G., Hilliard, A.
Description: The microcomputer revolution of the 1980s allowed economical development of simulations for a wide range of domains. While classical stimulus-response representations are simplified to eliminate many phenomena of interest, conventional high-fidelity simulations of complex systems can produce very difficult to interpret results. Abstract ‘microworlds’ such as DURESS II have shown some of the strengths of both extremes and have been widely used for human factors research. Recently, a need has been identified for a theoretical framework to guide the design of simulators, the selection of appropriate levels of fidelity, and the generation of useful simulated scenarios. This project generalizes from successful applications of Cognitive Work Analysis to military training simulators (Naikar 2002) and provides a theoretical basis for applying analysis results to design.

DRDC 06 — Supporting Appropriate Trust in Automated Combat Identification Systems


Partner: Defence Research and Development Canada
Dates: October 2006 - September 2007
Participants: Jamieson, G., Hollands, J., Wang, L.
Description: Friendly fire is an enduring problem in modern warfare. Investigations have revealed that human errors in combat identification (CID) played a major part in most friendly fire incidents. Automated CID systems, which often comprise “question and answer systems”, have been developed and provided to soldiers. However, both field observations and empirical data suggest that soldiers tend to overly trust in and rely on these automated systems which are in fact not perfectly reliable.
The purpose of this study is to support soldiers’ appropriate trust in CID systems. This study includes two phases: in the first phase, we will conduct two successive experiments to explore soldiers’ interaction with a CID system and discover crucial information that can engender soldiers’ appropriate trust in the system; in the second phase, we will design an interface for the system based on the findings in the first phase.

BLUESKY 06 — Applying Ecological Interface Design to Renewable Energy Transportation


Partner: NSERC
Dates: January 2006 - April 2007
Participants: Jamieson, G., Hilliard, A.
Description: This design project applied EID to the renewable energy domain, specifically to a Race Strategy display for the University of Toronto Solar Car Team. Many of the challenges faced in Solar Car Racing will be relevant to widespread adoption of renewable energy transportation technologies. The visual and accessible nature of this project and its publications is intended to promote collaboration with renewable energy researchers.
Publications:

View PDF Hilliard, A. & Jamieson, G. A., "Winning Solar Races with Interface Design," Ergonomics In Design, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 6-11, 2008.

View PDF Hilliard, A., & Jamieson, G. A., "Ecological interface design for solar car strategy: From state equations to visual relations," Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, pp. 139-144, 2007.

SRO 04 — Prototyping and Evaluation of Ecological Interfaces in a Nuclear Power Plant Simulator


Partner: NSERC Special Research Opportunities
Dates: December 2004 - March 2007
Participants: Jamieson, G., Lau, N.
Collaborator: Jordanna Kwok, Catherine M. Burns, University of Waterloo; Robin Welch, Øystein Veland, Alf Ove Braseth, Gyrd Skraaning, Institute for Energy Technology (IFE)
Description: The purpose of this project was to investigate whether Situation Awareness (SA) can be supported through Ecological Interface Design (EID). SA research investigates how “knowledge of the situation” can influence decision-making and performance while EID research examines how system information during operations can be conveyed through human-machine interfaces. Thus, we hypothesized that ecological interfaces can support SA and adequate SA relies on information of ecological interfaces.

In this project, ecological displays was developed for the secondary side of a boiling water reactor plant operating in Sweden. The ecological interface was implemented in a full-scoped simulator and evaluated using SA measures against two computerized versions of the plant displays/hardwire panels. The ecological displays was found to support SA in beyond-design basis scenarios better than the current plant displays. However, the current plant displays seemed to support SA better than the ecological interface when control actions were required during within-design basis scenarios. The empirical study indicates that EID is capable of supporting SA in beyond-design basis scenarios.
Publications:

View PDF Skraaning Jr., G., Lau, N., Welch, R., Nihlwing, C., Andresen, G., Brevig, L.H., Veland, O., Jamieson, G.A., Burns, C., Kwok, J. (2007). The ecological interface design experiment (2005). (CEL 07-02). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

View PDF Welch, R., Braseth, A.O., Nihlwing, C., Skraaning Jr., G., Teigen, A., Veland, O., Lau, N., Jamieson, G.A., Burns, C.M., Kwok, J. (2007). The 2005 ecological interface design process and the resulting displays. (CEL 07-01). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

View PDF Lau, N. & Jamieson, G. A., "Numerical models in representation design: Computing seawater properties in an ecological interface," Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, pp. 245-249, 2006.

View PDF Lau, N. & Jamieson, G. A., "Ecological interface design for the condenser subsystems of a boiling water reactor," Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society, (no pagination), 2006.

View PDF Lau, N. & Jamieson, G. A., "Ecological interface design for the condenser subsystems of a boiling water reactor," Proceedings of the 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, (no pagination), 2006.

CAS06 — Trust By Design: Towards effective autonomic DB2 administration


Partner: IBM Centre for Advanced Studies
Dates: January 2006 - December 2006
Participants: Jamieson, G., Duez, P.
Collaborator: Michael Zuliani and Rick Sobiesiak (IBM Canada)
Description: This project was a continuation of [CAS 04] and [CAS 05]. The framework developed in [CAS 05] was applied to a new automated tool in DB2, to identify information from multiple levels of attributional abstraction. The results of this analysis were applied to a subsequent release of DB2, where the information identified by the analysis was added to documentation and clarified in logs generated by the automation.
Publications:

View PDF Duez, P., Zuliani, M. J., & Jamieson, G. A., "Trust by design: Information requirements for appropriate trust in automation," Proceedings of the 16th IBM Centre for Advanced Studies’ Annual International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering. (no pagination), 2006.

View PDF Duez, P. & Jamieson, G. A. "Toward designing for trust in database automation," Proceedings of the 5th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation Control and Human Machine Interface Technology, pp. 439-446, 2006.

DRDC 05 — Developing Human-Machine Interfaces to Support Monitoring of UAV Automation


Partner: Defence Research and Development Canada
Dates: October 2005 - March 2006
Participants: Jamieson, G., Wang, L.
Description: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are rapidly becoming an integral part of contemporary military operations. In light of advanced technologies in UAV flight and payload systems, the role of UAV operators is evolving from an active system controller into a passive system monitor. However, human operators are known to be ill-suited for monitoring tasks due to their inappropriate trust in automated systems. Previous research suggests that two types of information are essential in generating appropriate trust in automation: information of automation process and information related to contexts in which systems are used.
The goal of this research was to create innovative cognitive artifacts that could communicate the aforementioned information to UAV operators for the purpose of engendering appropriate trust in automation on UAVs. The work items included: analyzing the changing tasks of UAV crews; categorizing the emerging automation technologies in UAV systems; reviewing UAV human-automation research; introducing two human-machine interface concepts for selected types of UAV automation; and proposing a research plan for testing and evaluating these design concepts.

CAS 05 — Exploring Database Administrators' Attitudes towards Automation


Partner: IBM Centre for Advanced Studies
Dates: January 2005 - December 2005
Participants: Jamieson, G., Duez, P.
Collaborator: Michael Zuliani and Rick Sobiesiak (IBM Canada)
Description: This project was a continuation of [CAS 04] and explored the potential impact of CWA on a “policy-based” approach to automation administration. In addition, a field study of operational database administrators (DBAs) was conducted to investigate their interaction with DB2 and with automation within DB2. This field study shed light on DBAs’ reliance on procedures and practice in development environments (“sandboxes”) to ensure database availability. In this environment, it is important that automation be transparent in its processes and in reporting its performance in order to gain operators’ trust in a high-availability environment.
Additionally, a framework was developed to leverage the Abstraction Hierarchy to describe an automated tool in such a way as to identify relevant purpose-, process- and performance-related information.

CFI-OIT 02 — Process Control Simulator for the Development and Evaluation of Advanced Operations Applications


Dates: September 2002 - October 2005
Participants: Jamieson, G., Hilliard, A., Burns, C. M., Lau, N.
Description: We constructed a high fidelity process simulator suite in which we can design, deploy, and evaluate novel information applications to support operators in the process industries (e.g., refining and chemical production). Research conducted in this simulator will improve the productivity of the joint worker/information technology team. Major components of the infrastructure include simulation and control software (MiMiC and DeltaV), operator work stations, sensing and control equipment (Foundation Fieldbus), and a dry laboratory to house the equipment. The simulator is connected to a research network, allowing researchers at Ontario Universities, Colleges, and private-sector partners to use the infrastructure remotely. Effective use of information technology by operations teams is a key factor in establishing safe and productive manufacturing facilities. Thus, the research will benefit both Canadian industry and public health through improvements in worker use of information technology.
Publications:

View PDF Hilliard, A., Thompson, L., & Jamieson, G.A. (2006). Canada Foundatinon for Innovation (CFI) Emerson DeltaV / MiMiC Industrial Process Control Simulator Technical Report. (CEL 06-01). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

CAS 04 — Investigating the Applicability of the 3 P’s


Partner: IBM Centre for Advanced Studies
Dates: June 2004 - December 2004
Participants: Jamieson, G., Duez, P.
Collaborator: Michael Zuliani and Rick Sobiesiak (IBM Canada)
Description: DB2 is a complex relational database application that presents difficult challenges to enterprise database administrators (DBAs). For that reason, the IBM Toronto Labs has a dedicated User Experience Team for DB2. IBM has undertaken a new thrust to incorporate autonomic computing into DB2. An acknowledged challenge in meeting this objective is engendering user trust in the automation. The purpose of this research program is to develop a design framework for appropriate operator trust in, and reliance on, automation.
The purpose of this first stage was to determine the applicability of Lee and See’s conceptual model of automation reliance to recently-developed automated functionality within DB2, specifically, to critique interfaces and documentation based on the three categories of attributional abstraction (purpose, process and performance) identified by the model.

EMS 01 — Expanding Ecological Interface Design to Support Emergency Ambulance Dispatching Work Domains


Partner: NSERC, OGS
Dates: April 2001 - December 2004
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Chow, R.
Description: While previous research has tended to apply the principles of Ecological Interface Design (EID) to create revolutionary interfaces in primarily physical work domains, this research applies EID principles to create evolutionary interfaces in the primarily social work domain of emergency medical services (EMS) dispatching. In EMS dispatching, even state-of-the-art interfaces can be described as “single-sensor-single indicator”, and most of the information shown to dispatchers in conventional interfaces are neither abstracted (i.e., translated from physical descriptions to functional descriptions) nor aggregated (i.e., translated from per-unit descriptions to system-wide descriptions). We have designed new interfaces that are intended to enhance, rather than replace, current interfaces by providing additional information such as: response times to individual emergency calls (which serve as heuristic measures of each patient’s probability of survival), response times aggregated across emergency calls, coverage of priority posting areas, resource availability, resource allocation, and resource utilization over time. An experiment involving current, experienced emergency ambulance dispatchers was conducted to compare the new interface (used in conjunction with the conventional interface) against the conventional interface (used in isolation). While the new interface was not shown to improve performance directly, it received favourable subjective ratings from the dispatchers. Specifically, most displays within the new interface were rated by most dispatchers as having helpful content and logical structure; all displays within the new interface were rated by all dispatchers as having intuitive visual form; and most dispatchers preferred to have the new interface. As part of this project, a first-of-its-kind simulator was developed to support the interface evaluation. A version of this simulator was acquired by EMS to support their training activities.
Publications:

View PDF Chow, R., & Vicente, K. J., "A field study of emergency ambulance dispatching: Implications for decision support," Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 46th Annual Meeting, pp. 313-317, 2002.

CONTXT02 — Context-Related Reliability of Automation and Automation Failure Detection


Partner: NSERC
Dates: January 2003 - August 2004
Participants: Jamieson, G., Bagheri, N.
Description: We examined the question of how automation reliability affects human performance in a multi-task environment. Subjects are asked to perform two manual tasks using a flight simulation software (The MAT battery): a tracking task, and a fuel management task. At the same time, subjects had to monitor and detect occasional failures of an automated system that controls four gauges. An eye-tracking system, ERICA, was used to determine how participants allocated their attention across the different tasks.
The goals of this research were twofold.
The first goal was to further investigate the issue of complacency or over trust in automation. To date, most of the literature on complacency had used the detection rate of automation failures as an indication of the monitoring behavior. As automation failures started to go undetected by participants, they were said to show sign of complacency. Our first study replicated one of the studies where complacency was observed, but this time with eye movement recording. As in previous studies, monitors of constant high-reliability automation performed poorly compared to participants in other conditions. However, whereas this performance might previously have been attributed to complacency, eye movement recordings showed that, following an initial lag in sampling of the automated task, participants in the constant high reliability condition began sampling more frequently – eventually matching sampling patterns of other participants. This observation tends to argue against complacency as an explanation for the poor monitoring performance. That no differences in self-reported trust in the automation between groups were observed further discounts the complacency/overtrust attribution.
The second goal of the study was to investigate the effect of context-related automation failures on operator reliance. To date, most of the existing literature on human-automation interaction dealt with random failures of the automation. Furthermore, participants were usually not given any information about how and why the automation might fail. However, in real settings, certain phases of operation or particular environmental conditions are more or less likely to be associated with automation failures, and operators usually know it. Thus, in our second study, participants were given information about the automation reliability, and why it might fail. In contrast to the first the first study, the performance of monitors of constant high reliability automation was indistinguishable from that of all other groups. Moreover, eye tracking data showed that the monitoring behavior of these participants was more consistent and more frequent than in the first study. These observations suggest that providing operators with information about the context sensitive nature of automation reliability might alleviate the monitoring performance decrement associated with highly reliable automation.
Publications:

View PDF Bagheri, N., & Jamieson, G. A., "The impact of context-related reliability on automation failure detection and scanning behaviour," Proceedings of the IEEE 2004 International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, pp. 212-217, 2004.

View PDF Bagheri, N., Mohite, S., Junta, D., & Jamieson, G. A., "Influence of context-related reliability on automation failure detection performance," Proceedings of the 22nd European Annual Conference on Human Decision Making and Control, pp. 41-47, 2003.

FDM 02 — Cognitive Engineering for Financial Decision Making


Dates: September 2002 - May 2003
Participants: Jamieson, G.
Description: This project was one of the first to explore how cognitive engineering principles can be applied to financial systems. The target of analysis was a type of mutual fund called a structured product, which is controlled by a team of portfolio managers. A Work Domain Analysis (WDA) was conducted to model the constraints that shape the actions of the portfolio management team. In doing so, the traditional WDA framework was modified to accommodate the characteristics of a financial system. The resulting work domain representation was used to evaluate the information artifact currently used by mangers of the structured product. The comparison revealed gaps in the information provided by the current system and highlighted target areas for improving the support provided to portfolio managers. Preliminary findings also indicated that the finance industry could benefit from the application of this cognitive engineering precept.
Publications:

View PDF Achonu, J., & Jamieson, G. A., "Work domain analysis of a financial system: an abstraction hierarchy for portfolio management," Proceedings of the 22nd European Annual Conference on Human Decision Making and Control, pp. 103-109, 2003.

BIB 01 — Test of Simonton’s Model of Creative Productivity


Partner: NSERC
Dates: June 2001 - October 2002
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Cassano-Piché, A.
Collaborator: John D. Lee and Anna Shearer (U of Iowa)
Description: Simonton’s (1997) model of creative productivity, based on a blind variation-selection process, predicts scientific impact can only be evaluated retrospectively, after recognition has been achieved. We tested this hypothesis using bibliometric data from the Human Factors journal, which gives an award for the best paper published each year. If Simonton’s model was correct, award winning papers would not be cited much more frequently than non-award winning papers, showing that scientific success cannot be judged prospectively. The results generally confirmed Simonton’s model. Receipt of the award increased the citation rate of articles, but accounted for only 0.8% to 1.2% of the variance in the citation rate. Consistent with Simonton’s model, the influence of the award on citation rate may reflect a selection process of an elite group of reviewers who are representative of the larger peer group that eventually determines the citation rate of the article. Consistent with Simonton’s model, author productivity accounts for far more variance in the authors’ total citation rate (58.9%) and in the citation rate of the authors’ most cited article (12.6%) than does award receipt.
Publications:

View PDF Lee, J. D., Vicente, K. J., Cassano, A., & Shearer, A., "Can scientific impact be judged prospectively? A bibliometric test of Simonton's model of creative productivity", Scientometrics, vol. 56, pp. 223-233, 2003.

View PDF Lee, J. D., Shearer, A., Cassano, A., & Vicente, K. J., "Does the Jerome H. Ely Human Factors article award predict scientific success?," Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 46th Annual Meeting, pp. 935-938, 2002.

CJA 01 — Programming Errors Contribute to Death From Patient-Controlled Analgesia: Report of a Case and Estimate of Probability


Partner: NSERC
Dates: May 2001 - February 2002
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Cassano-Piché, A.
Description: The purpose of this project was to identify the factors that threaten patient safety when using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and to obtain an evidencebased estimate of the probability of death from user programming errors associated with PCA.
A 19-yr-old woman underwent Cesarean section and delivered a healthy infant. Postoperatively, morphine sulfate (2 mg bolus, lockout interval of six minutes, four-hour limit of 30 mg) was ordered, to be delivered by PCA. A drug cassette containing 1 mg•mL–1 solution of morphine was unavailable, so the nurse used a cassette that contained a more concentrated solution (5 mg•mL–1). 7.5 hr after the PCA was started, the patient was pronounced dead. Blood samples were obtained and autopsy showed a toxic concentration of morphine. The available evidence was consistent with a concentration programming error where morphine 1 mg•mL–1 was entered instead of 5 mg•mL–1. Based on a search of such incidents
in the Food and Drug Administration MDR database and other sources and on a denominator of 22,000,000 provided by the device manufacturer, mortality from user programming errors with this device was estimated to be a low likelihood event (ranging from 1 in 33,000 to 1 in 338,800), but relatively numerous in absolute terms (ranging from 65–667 deaths).
In conclusion, anesthesiologists, nurses, human factors engineers, and device manufacturers can work together to enhance the safety of PCA pumps by redesigning user interfaces, drug cassettes, and hospital operating procedures to minimize programming errors and to enhance their detection before patients are harmed.
Publications:

View PDF Vicente, K. J., Kada-Bekhaled, K., Hillel, G., Cassano, A., & Orser, B. A., "Programming errors contribute to death from patient-controlled analgesia: Case report and estimate of probability", Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 50, pp. 328-332, 2003. (with accompanying editorial).

CRD 98 — Human-Computer Interface Design for Petrochemical Process Control--Integrating Task- and System-based Approaches I: Integrated Modeling


Partner: Nova Chemicals, Honeywell Technology Center, NSERC
Dates: January 1998 - June 2001
Participants: Jamieson, G., Vicente, K. J.
Collaborator: Chris Miller (HTC), Jamie Errington (NOVA)
Description: The purpose of this two-phase project was to develop a novel approach to the design of human-computer interfaces for the petrochemical industry. Inefficient handling of abnormal situations in this industry has led to increased operating costs, reduced occupational safety, and adverse environmental impact. One approach to addressing these problems is by designing model-based interfaces that present operators with the information they need to deal with abnormal situations effectively. However, there are two types of models that can be used to identify the information that should be presented in human-computer interfaces. Task-based models are like directions for navigation because they identify the actions that human operators should take for particular situations; system-based models are more like maps for navigation because they emphasize the overall structure of the plant, independent of any particular situation. Task models are efficient because they identify the information and prioritize it for pre-defined classes of situations, whereas system models are more robust because they identify the functional relationships that are potentially relevant for all situations.
In the first phase of the project [TIME 94], we explored the benefits of integrating these two types of models. The integration was first attempted for the DURESS II process simulation. Plan-Goal Graphs (PGG), a task-based method, were constructed and information requirements generated. These requirements were compared with those generated by the system-based abstraction hierarchy (AH) analysis of DURESS II. The comparison revealed that the analyses were largely complementary in terms of the information generated. Subsequently, a similar comparison was undertaken for a representative petrochemical process. An AH, Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA), and Control Task Analysis (CTA) were performed for a key stage in the ethylene refining process. A comparison of the analysis results again supported the conclusion that system-based analyses (such as the AH) and task based analyses (such as PGG, HTA, and CTA) produce complementary information requirements to be used in the design of human-computer interfaces.
The suite of information requirements generated by the AH, HTA, and CTA were consolidated, discrepancies resolved, and redundancies eliminated. The resulting list of information requirements served as the knowledge base for the design of novel human-computer interfaces in the second phase of the project (CRD 00).
Publications:

View PDF Miller, C.A., & Vicente, K.J. (1998). Abstraction decomposition space analysis for NOVA's E1 acetylene hydrogenation reactor. (CEL 98-09). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

View PDF Miller, C.A., & Vicente. K.J. (1998). Comparative analysis of display requirements generated via task-based and work domain-based analyses: A test case using DURESS II. (CEL 98-08). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

View PDF Miller, C., & Vicente. K.J. (1998). Integrated abstraction hierarchy and plan-goal graph model for the DURESS II System: A test case for unified system- and task-based modeling and interface design. (CEL 98-07). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

View PDF Miller, C. A., & Vicente, K. J., "Task 'versus' work domain analysis techniques: A comparative analysis," Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 43rd Annual Meeting, pp. 328-332, 1999.

View PDF Miller, C. M., & Vicente, K. J., "Toward an integration of task and work domain analysis techniques for human-computer interface design," Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 42nd Annual Meeting, pp. 336-340, 1998.

CRD 00 — Human-Computer Interface Design for Petrochemical Process Control--Integrating Task- and System-based Approaches II: Interface Design and Evaluation


Partner: Nova Chemicals, Honeywell Technology Center, NSERC
Dates: January 1998 - June 2001
Participants: Jamieson, G., Vicente, K. J.
Description: In Phase 2 of the project [HTC 97], we mapped the integrated information requirements into a pair of ecological interfaces. One interface (P+F) contained information exclusively from the system-based model while the other interface (P+F+T) contained information from both system- and task-based models. An iterative design approach was used in which process engineers and operators critiqued early designs. The final designs were implemented in software, connected to a full-scope industry simulator, and validated. An empirical evaluation compared operator performance on the two ecological interfaces and the contemporary interface.
Publications:

View PDF Jamieson, G.A. (2002). Ecological interface design for petrochemical process control: Integrating task- and system-based approaches. (CEL 02-01). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

View PDF Jamieson, G.A., Reising, D.V.C., & Hajdukiewicz, J. (2001). EID design rationale project: Case study report. (CEL 01-03). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

View PDF Jamieson, G.A., & Ho, W.H. (2001). A prototype ecological interface for a simulated petrochemical process. (CEL 01-02). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Jamieson, G. A., Ho, W. H., & Reising, D.V.C. (2003). "Ecological Interface Design in Practice: A Design for Petrochemical Processing Operations." In Julie Jacko and Constantine Stephanidis (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction: Theory and Practice, Part I (pp. 133-137). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.

View PDF Jamieson, G. A., "Bridging the gap between cognitive work analysis and ecological interface design," Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, pp. 273-277, 2003.

View PDF Jamieson, G. A., "Empirical evaluation of an industrial application of ecological interface design," Proceedings of the 46th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, pp. 536-540, 2002.

ADAPT 99 — Adapting to Change in Dynamic Worlds: A Study of Critical Success Factors in a Process Control Microworld


Partner: NSERC
Dates: October 1999 - December 2000
Participants: Hajdukiewicz, J. R.
Description: The objectives of this research were to look closer at understanding the critical success factors in adapting to change from a fundamental point of view. To assist in studying these issues, concepts from ecological psychology and motor control, in particular coordinative structures (i.e., functionally higher-level control), provided some insight. The hypotheses for this research are noted below:
People can use functionally higher-level control to successfully adapt to change.
Functionally higher-level control can be induced by invariant, goal-relevant information about the work domain, with people attuned to this structure.
Functionally higher-level control can be made possible by the existence and utilization of wide opportunities for component resource selection and allocation (i.e., multiple degrees of freedom).
The research was narrowed down to three experiments: (1) adaptation to global changes in component dynamics, (2) adaptation to local changes in component dynamics, and (3) adaptation to changes in interface form. The experiments were conducted using DURESS II, a thermal-hydraulic microworld simulation environment, as the testbed. The participants used one of two different interfaces to control the process, each developed using different interface design principles (Vicente and Rasmussen, 1990). The P interface, designed using a more traditional approach (i.e., mimic design), displayed primarily physical information about the work domain. The P+F interface, designed using the principles of EID, displayed both physical and functional information about the work domain derived from an AH analysis of DURESS II.
Publications:

View PDF Hajdukiewicz J.R., & Vicente, K.J. (1999). A cognitive engineering approach for measuring adaptive behavior. (CEL 99-05). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Hajdukiewicz, J. R., & Vicente, K. J., "Ecological interface design: Adaptation to dynamic perturbations," Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Human Interaction with Complex Systems, pp. 69-73, 2000.

EID-RAT 99 — EID Design Rationale


Partner: Honeywell HTC, ASM Consortium
Dates: September 1999 - December 2000
Participants: Jamieson, G., Vicente, K. J.
Collaborator: Dal-Vernon C. Reising (Honeywell)
Description: Although there is substantial industry interest in the demonstrated performance benefits of EID, the methodology is perceived to be labor-intensive and potentially difficult to reproduce on a large scale. Industry representatives perceive these two issues as obstacles to using EID in practice. The ASM Consortium and Honeywell expressed an interest in making EID more tractable and accessible to industry. This project consisted of a case study of the EID process effort that took place in the UMP 00 project. By documenting the design process, a case-based design guideline was generated. Capturing the process by which EID is done and abstracting heuristic guidelines is essential for determining to what extent EID can be fully utilized for industrial-sized applications.
Publications:

View PDF Jamieson, G.A., Reising, D.V.C., & Hajdukiewicz, J. (2001). EID design rationale project: Case study report. (CEL 01-03). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

EYEMOV 99 — Attention Allocation in Ecological Interface Design Using Eye Tracking


Partner: Self-funded
Dates: March 1999 - March 2000
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Haudegond, S
Description: In this research, we examine the question of how people allocate their attention when controlling a complex system while watching an integrated view of the system. To achieve this, we analyzed fixations on particular objects as an indicator of attention. The subjects had to control DURESS II wearing an eyetracker with one of two interfaces, a traditional Physical Interface (P) and another fitting the requirements of Ecological Interface Design (P+F). Two other independent groups were participating in this experiment, some novices knowing nothing about the system and some experts from a previous experiment. In all cases, the visual scanning patterns seem to exhibit colored noise which is theorized to be a characteristic signature of complexity.

HTC 97 — Applying the Abstraction Hierarchy to the Petrochemical Industry: A Feasibility Study


Partner: Honeywell Technology Center (HTC)
Dates: October 1996 - September 1998
Participants: Jamieson, G., Vicente, K. J.
Description: The goal of this project was to foster an integrated systems approach to information management for petrochemical processes. To do so, the Ecological Interface Design (EID) framework has been employed. In keeping with that framework, an Abstraction Hierarchy (AH) for a simplified, yet representative, petrochemical process has been built. This work domain representation has been reviewed by subject matter experts who have confirmed its accuracy. The AH was then employed as a basis for evaluation of the information available to current operators. Finally, the design principles prescribed by EID were employed to map the content and structure of the AH onto visual forms. The result is an innovative, prototype ecological interface for a representative petrochemical process.
Publications:

View PDF Jamieson, G.A., & Vicente, K.J. (1998). Ecological interface design for petrochemical processing applications. (CEL 98-04). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

View PDF Jamieson, G. A., & Vicente, K. J., "Modeling techniques to support abnormal situation management in the petrochemical processing industry," Proceedings of the CSME Symposium on Industrial Engineering and Management, pp. 249-256, 1998.

View PDF Jamieson, G. A., & Vicente, K. J., "Implications of a control-theoretic approach to human-automation-plant interface design," Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Symposium on Human Interaction with Complex Systems, pp. 90-98, 1998.

CWA 99 — Cognitive Work Analysis Book Contract with Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates


Partner: Contract with Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates
Dates: December 1995 - Unknown 1997
Participants: Vicente, K. J.
Collaborator: Annelise Mark Pejtersen, Risø National Laboratory
Description: A contract was signed with Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates to write a textbook/monograph on the framework for cognitive work analysis (CWA) developed by Rasmussen. The book is written in a pedagogic fashion with many examples, the goal being to make these ideas more accessible to a much wider audience than they have been in the past. Four phases of cognitive work analysis are described: work domain representation, control task descriptions, mental strategies, and operator competencies. Each phase is thoroughly illustrated with an application examples that is followed through in the book, DURESS II from the domain of process control. The thesis of the book is that, by adopting CWA, systems designers can create information technology that leads to safe, productive, and healthy work environments.
Publications:

Vicente, K. J. (1998). "Human factors and global problems: a systems approach." Systems Engineering and Management for Sustainable Development, 1(1), 57-69.

View PDF Janzen, M. E., and Vicente, K. J., "Attention allocation within the abstraction hierarchy," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 48, pp. 521-545, 1998.

View PDF Vicente, K. J., "Cognitive work analysis: Implications for microworld research on human-machine interaction," Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, pp. 3432-3436, 1995.

View PDF Vicente, K. J., "Task analysis, cognitive task analysis, cognitive work analysis: What's the difference?," Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting, pp. 534-537, 1995.

Vicente, K. J. (1999). Cognitive Work Analysis: Towards Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-based Work. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. (Invited)

AECB 97 — Cognitive Functioning of Control Room Operators - Final Phase


Partner: Atomic Energy Control Board, companion contract with Westinghouse STC
Dates: October 1996 - June 1997
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Burns, C. M.
Collaborator: Randall J. Mumaw and Emilie M. Roth (Westinghouse STC)
Description: This is a continuation of the research performed under project WEC 95. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the validity and generalizability of a preliminary model of operator cognitive monitoring developed in the previous project for the AECB. In this phase, meetings were held with operations staff at Pickering B to obtain feedback from the report we had written for earlier work. In addition, the report was distributed to a number of operators and their comments were recorded. Additional data were collected at Pickering B by observing control operator monitoring activities over a total of approximately 65 hours. The results obtained from these activities indicate that the contents of our previous report are generalizable across operators. Moreover, additional insights were uncovered which have important implications for a revised model of operator cognitive monitoring.
Publications:

View PDF Vicente, K.J., Mumaw, R.J., & Roth, E.M. (1997). Cognitive functioning of control room operators: Final phase. (CEL 97-01). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Burns, C. M. "Space-time display integration can mean better diagnoses: (Even with a very cluttered display!)." Proceedings of the Human Factors Association of Canada Annual Meeting, pp. 285-290, 1998.

View PDF Vicente, K. J., Mumaw, R. J., & Roth, E. M. "More about operator monitoring under normal operations: The role of workload regulation and the impact of control room technology," Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 42nd Annual Meeting, pp. 229-233, 1998.

ABB 96 — An Experimental Evaluation of Functional Displays in Process Supervision and Control


Partner: ABB
Dates: December 1995 - November 1996
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Burns, C. M.
Description: This project was a continuation of ABB 95. A literature review was conducted examining the problems with computer interfaces for large systems. Theories of navigation and design concepts for aiding navigation were also reviewed. This project revealed that the loss of functional linking and connecting information was an area of EID most vulnerable to the design of ecological interfaces for large systems. This project cumulated in a plan for an investigation of the effects of different approaches to integration on large scale ecological interface design. This plan was executed in ABB 97.

ABB 97 — The effects of spatial and temporal proximity of means-end related information in ecological display design for an industrial simulation


Partner: ABB
Dates: December 1995 - November 1996
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Burns, C. M.
Description: This project was the final leg of the ABB research series culminating in an experimental investigation. Based on an abstraction hierarchy of the ABB plant made in ABB 96, views were created for each cell of the abstraction hierarchy. These views were then integrated in three different ways based on a novel use of a space-time approach to describing integration. The details of this approach are available in CEL 97-05 and Burns (1998). The three displays employed low spatial-high temporal integration, high spatial-low temporal integration, and high spatial-high temporal integration of means-end information. Subjects performed information search tasks as well as fault detection and diagnosis tasks. It was found that the spatial and temporal proximity of means-end related information affects the traversal of means-end connections. In particular, high spatial and temporal integration resulted in significantly faster and more accurate fault diagnosis performance. This research is a unique look at integration issues with a large plant simulation and helps to expand the application of ecological interface design to large systems.

DCIEM 95 — Application of Ecological Interface Design to Aviation


Partner: Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM)
Dates: January 1995 - August 1996
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Dinadis N.
Description: A number of researchers have observed that glass cockpit displays tend to be opaque, and that this makes it difficult for the flight crew to develop accurate and comprehensive mental models of system functioning, thereby leading to errors in abnormal situations. However, few researchers have suggested how to create better functional visualizations of system behavior, and even fewer have provided examples of what such advanced displays might look like. This research describes how the principles of ecological interface design (EID), a framework developed in the context of process control, can be applied in aviation to design engineering systems status displays. A prototype EID interface for the fuel and engines of a Lockheed Hercules C-130 Model E-H aircraft was constructed using the VAPS prototyping tool. This study shows, for the first time, that EID can be meaningfully applied to aviation.
Publications:

View PDF Dinadis, N., & Vicente, K.J. (1996). Application of ecological interface design to aviation. (CEL 96-07). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Beevis, D., Vicente, K. J., & Dinadis, N., "An exploratory application of ecological interface design to aircraft systems," Proceedings of the NATO RTO Symposium on Collaborative Crew Performance in Complex Operational Systems, pp. 2-1 - 2-9, 1998.

View PDF Dinadis, N., and Vicente, K. J., "Designing functional visualizations for aircraft system status displays," International Journal of Aviation Psychology, vol. 9, pp. 241-269, 1999.

AECB96 — Cognitive Functioning of Control Rooms Operators During Normal Plant Operating Conditions


Partner: Atomic Energy Control Board, companion contract with Westinghouse STC
Dates: January 1996 - May 1996
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Burns, C. M.
Collaborator: Randall J. Mumaw and Emilie M. Roth (Westinghouse STC)
Description: This project was a continuation of the research performed under project WEC 95. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the validity and generalizability of a preliminary model of operator cognitive monitoring developed in the previous project for the AECB. In this phase, meetings were held with operations staff at Pickering B to obtain feedback from the report we had written for earlier work. In addition, the report was distributed to a number of operators and their comments were recorded. Additional data were collected at Pickering B by observing control operator monitoring activities over a total of approximately 65 hours. The results obtained from these activities indicate that the contents of our previous report are generalizable across operators. Moreover, additional insights were uncovered which have important implications for a revised model of operator cognitive monitoring.
Publications:

Roth, E. M., Mumaw, R. J., Vicente, K. J., & Burns, C. M., "Operator monitoring during normal operations: Vigilance or problem-solving" Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 41st Annual Meeting, pp. 158-162, 1997.

Vicente, K. J., Mumaw, R. J., Roth, E. M., & Burns, C. M., "A field study of operator monitoring: Strategies for adapting control room technology," Proceedings of Cognitive Systems Engineering in Process Control '96, pp. 222-229, 1996.

ALIAS 94 — Improving the Fluency of Work Through Transparent Interface Designs


Partner: Alias Research Inc.
Dates: August 1994 - December 1995
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Harrison, B
Collaborator: Bill Buxton, Gordon Kurtenbach, and Jonathan Shekter, Alias | Wavefront Inc.
Description: The purpose of this research was to improve the fluency of work by introducing "see-through" or semi-transparent user interface objects such as windows, icons, tool palettes, etc. This particular project consisted of controlled laboratory experiments which evaluated divided and focused attention and visual interference issues in semi-transparent interface designs. To this end, a series of experiments were conducted which introduced progressively more realistic task elements taken from the target task domain. The results of these experiments were subsequently used to inform our design choices within selected industrial applications, in particular, 3-D modeling, animation, and painting applications. A case study of transparent user interface objects in a working application was completed. The results of these studies indicate that transparency can improve performance, but that several obstacles must be overcome before this technology can be introduced effectively into commercial products.
Publications:

View PDF Harrison, B.L., & Vicente, K.J. (1995). An experimental evaluation of transparent menu usage. (CEL 95-07). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

View PDF Harrison, B.L., Hiroshi, I., Vicente, K.J., & Buxton, B. (1994). Evaluation of a display design space: Transparent layered user interfaces. (CEL 94-07). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

View PDF Harrison, B.L. (1997). The design and evaluation of transparent user interfaces: From theory to practice. (CEL 96-10). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada

View PDF Harrison, B. L., & Vicente, K. J., "A case study of transparent user interfaces in a commercial 3-d modeling and paint application," Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 40th Annual Meeting, pp. 375-379, 1996.

Harrison, B. L., and Vicente, K. J., "An experimental evaluation of transparent menu usage," Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI 96 Conference Proceedings, pp. 391-398, 1996.

Harrison, B. L., Kurtenbach, G., and Vicente, K. J., "An experimental evaluation of transparent user interface tools and information content," Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, pp. 81-90, 1995.

Harrison, B. L., Ishii, H., Vicente, K. J., and Buxton, W. A. S., "Transparent layered user interfaces: An evaluation of a display design to enhance focused and divided attention," Human Factors in Computing Systems: CHI '95 Conference Proceedings, pp. 317-324, 1995.

ABB 95 — Physical and Functional Displays in Process Supervision and Control


Dates: December 1994 - November 1995
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Burns, C. M.
Collaborator: Fake Collaborator
Description: This project was a continuation of ABB 94 and explored ideas for integrating functional information in an interface for the ABB conventional power plant. This project included a review and evaluation of previous attempts to include functional information in process control interfaces. This study shed light on the additional considerations that need to be taken account when applying EID to an industrial-scale problem, where functional and physical information for the entire system cannot be represented on one display screen, as it is in the P+F interface for the smaller DURESS II microworld. As well, some display concepts were developed for the ABB plant.

ABB 94 — Ecological Interfaces for Complex Industrial Plants


Dates: December 1993 - September 1994
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Dinadis N.
Description: The purpose of this research was to determine how the principles of EID could be applied to systems that are larger in scale than that which had been previously used as a testbed for evaluating EID (e.g., AECL 93). The focus of this initial feasibility study was the feedwater subsystem of the ABB conventional power plant simulator. The primary outcome of this research was a prototype interface for the feedwater subsystem that is based on the EID framework. The main findings of this study were: a) a proof of concept showing that the principles of EID can be meaningfully applied to a larger-scale design problem representative of those found in the nuclear industry; b) EID needs to be supplemented by more specific interface design principles; and c) it is possible to effectively integrate EID with these other design principles. Therefore, EID seems to be a viable candidate for the design of advanced computer interfaces for complex industrial plants.
Publications:

View PDF Dinadis, N., and Vicente, K. J., "Does ecological interface design scale up to industrial plants?," Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, pp. 3133-3138, 1995.

View PDF Dinadis, N., and Vicente, K. J., "Ecological interface design for a power plant feedwater subsystem," IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 43, pp. 266-277, 1996.

AECL 93 — Inducing Effective Control Strategies Through Ecological Interface Design


Partner: Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. Research (AECL), sponsored by a Connaught Fellowship and a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Grant
Dates: January 1993 - May 1994
Participants: Vicente, K. J., Pawlak, W. S.
Description: The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ecological interface design (EID) framework under a more representative set of conditions than previous research on EID. DURESS II, a fully interactive real-time simulation of a thermal-hydraulic process was used as a testbed for the project. Performance with two interfaces was compared: a P+F interface containing physical and functional system representations, and a traditional P interface based solely on a physical representation of the system. Subjects were given 4 weeks of daily practice with one of the two interfaces before their performance on normal events and unfamiliar faults was evaluated. Under normal conditions, there was no performance difference between the two interfaces. However, dual task results indicate that the P interface loads more on verbal resources, whereas the P+F interface loads more on spatial resources. Furthermore, a process tracing analysis of the fault trials showed that the P+F interface led to faster fault detection and more accurate fault diagnosis performance. In addition, a deficiency of the P+F interface was identified, suggesting a need for integrating temporal information with emergent feature displays. These findings have significant practical implications for the design of advanced interfaces for complex systems.
Publications:

View PDF Pawlak, W.S. (1994). Inducing effective control strategies through ecological interface design. (CEL 94-04). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Pawlak, W. S., and Vicente, K. J., "Ecological interface design: 'Shaping' effective operator control?," Proceedings of the 12th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Volume 4, pp. 387-389, 1994.

View PDF Pawlak, W. S., and Vicente, K. J., "Inducing effective operator control through ecological interface design," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 44, pp. 653-688, 1996.

DCIEM 93 — Human Factors Design Guidance: Matching the Advice to Designer's Questions


Partner: Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM)
Dates: September 1993 - March 1994
Participants: Burns, C. M., Christoffersen, K., Pawlak, W. S.
Description: This project addressed concerns regarding the extent to which human factors (HF) information has been incorporated into systems design. A four month field study of HF design in industry was conducted to gain an understanding of the constraints and challenges facing designers. HF designers in industry were surveyed to learn their judgements of the value and cost associated with typical HF handbook information. This project also involved two studies of handbook usage. Results indicated that current HF handbooks may not be providing the information that designers need. It was found that the design process, in this case, was highly constrained with many interactions with designers from different disciplines. Solution concepts appeared early in the design process and in a holistic manner, suggesting that design prototypes and other context-rich sources of information may better support these designers.
Publications:

Vicente, K. J., Burns, C. M., & Pawlak, W. S., "Better handbooks, better design," Ergonomics in Design, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 21-27, 1998.

Vicente, K. J., Burns, C. M., & Pawlak, W. S., "Muddling through wicked design problems," Ergonomics in Design, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 25-30, 1997.

View PDF Burns, C. M., & Vicente, K. J., "A participant-observer study of ergonomics in engineering design: How constraints drive design process," Applied Ergonomics, vol. 31, pp. 73-82, 2000.

Burns, C. M., & Vicente, K. J., "The value of human factors handbooks to human factors designers in the nuclear industry," Proceedings of the 1996 American Nuclear Society International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface Technologies, pp. 679-681, 1996.

Burns, C. M., and Vicente, K. J., "A framework for understanding interdisciplinary interactions in design," Proceedings of DIS 95: Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems, pp. 97-103, 1995.

Pejtersen, A. M., Sonnenwald, D. H., Buur, J., Govindaraj, T., and Vicente, K. J., "The design explorer project: Using a cognitive framework to support knowledge exploration," Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Engineering Design, vol. 2, pp. 419-429, 1995.

Burns, C. M., and Vicente, K. J., "Experiences in design: The case for design driven human factors," Proceedings of the 12th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Volume 4, pp. 28-31, 1994.

Burns, C. M., and Vicente, K. J., "Designer evaluations of human factors reference information," Proceedings of the 12th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Volume 6, pp. 295-297, 1994.

Christoffersen, K., Pawlak, W. S., and Vicente, K. J., "A comparative study of the effectiveness of human factors design handbooks," Proceedings of the 12th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Volume 6, pp. 292-294, 1994.

View PDF Pejtersen, A. M., Sonnenwald, D. H., Buur, J., Govindaraj, T., and Vicente, K. J., "The design explorer project: Using a cognitive framework to support knowledge exploration," Journal of Engineering Design, vol. 8, pp. 289-301, 1997. (Invited)

View PDF Burns, C. M., Vicente, K. J., Christoffersen, K., and Pawlak, W. S., "Towards viable, useful, and usable human factors design guidance," Applied Ergonomics, vol. 28, pp. 311-322, 1997.

View PDF Burns, C. M., and Vicente, K. J., "Judgements about the value and cost of human factors information in design," Information Processing and Management, vol. 32, pp. 259-271, 1996.

View PDF Vicente, K. J., Burns, C. M., & Pawlak, W. S. (1993). Egg-sucking, mousetraps, and the tower of babel: Making human factors guidance more accessible to designers (CEL 93-01). University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Design and Evaluation of Automated Decision Aids for Tactical Awareness


Partner: NSERC Discovery Team
Dates: 2013 - 2018
Participants: Hollands, J.

Supporting Novice & Expert Strategies for Energy Model Assessment in an Energy Management Information System


Partner: FedDev ARC
Dates: 2012 - 2013
Participants: Jamieson, G., Hilliard, A.
Description: Drawing from participant observation and a field study of energy efficiency, this work addressed the information required to assess the quality of a decision aid. The standard energy management practice of Energy Monitoring & Targeting (M&T) uses empirical model-driven statistics to produce a summary decision-aiding CUSUM chart. This study determined that users could not reliably interpret CUSUM charts, in part because they could not assess what the empirical model 'behind' the chart represented. The result was a prototype energy model explanatory report developed through heuristic evaluation and user-centered design. It was designed to support both novice (associative and criteria-based) and expert (statistical reasoning) assessment strategies.
Publications:

View PDF Hilliard, A. (2015). "Energy Monitoring and Targeting as diagnosis; Applying work analysis to adapt a statistical change detection strategy using representation aiding" (Ph.D.). University of Toronto (Canada), Ann Arbor. Retrieved from Dissertations & Theses @ University of Toronto; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1759161412)

View PDF Hilliard, A., Jamieson, G. A., & Jorjani, D. (2014). "Communicating a Model-Based Energy Performance Indicator." Ergonomics in Design: The Quarterly of Human Factors Applications, 22(4), 21–29.

View PDF Hilliard, A., & Jamieson, G. A. (2014). "A Strategy-Based Ecological(?) Display for Time-Series Structural Change Diagnosis." In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (pp. 353–358). San Diego, CA: IEEE.

View PDF Hilliard, A., & Jamieson, G. A. (2014). "Monitoring & Targeting Energy in Practice: A Field Study." In Proceedings of the 2014 ECEEE Summer Study in Industry (pp. 591–601). Arnhem, NL: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. Retrieved from http://www.eceee.org/library

View PDF Hilliard, A., & Jamieson, G. A. (2013). "Recursive Estimates as an Extension to CUSUM-based Energy Monitoring & Targeting". In Proceedings of the 2013 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry (pp. 4–1..4–13). Niagara Falls, NY: ACEEE. Retrieved from http://aceee.org/files/proceedings/2013/data/papers/4_094.pdf

ABB 14 — Consolidating Operations and Maintenance through Mobile Devices and Ubiquitous Service


Partner: ABB
Dates: 2014 - Present
Participants: Zhunussova, A., Tran, F.
Description: We envision that with the use of mobile devices, roles of the control room operators, field and maintenance technicians will blur and these workers will become members of consolidated flexible Operations and Maintenance (flex-O&M) Teams. In this project we will be looking at the maintenance and control tasks of these flex-O&M Teams. The teams will be able to move to any location in the facility to verify and maintain the quality of the DCS’s functional plant model against their direct observations. In turn, the central control room will evolve into a suite of control areas both real and virtual, local and remote, central and distributed, and individual and collaborative. The effectiveness of these extended control spaces will depend on the quality of communication between, and coordination of, workers.

We postulated five initial use case concepts for flex-O&M teams equipped with near-future mobile devices. In the course of the proposed project we would augment and refine these initial use cases through field study, work analysis, and feedback. Evidence-based prioritization would identify a small number of compelling, customer-prioritized use cases for which we would develop HMI wireframes to subsequently prototype and evaluate.

IBM 06 — Investigating the Applicability of the 3 P’s


Partner: IBM
Dates: 2006 - Present
Participants: Jamieson, G., Duez, P.
Collaborator: Michael Zuliani and Rick Sobiesiak (IBM Canada)
Description: This project is a continuation of [CAS 04], [CAS 05] and [CAS 06]. An experiment has been designed to determine the impact of information from multiple levels of attributional abstraction on the resolution of database administrator trust in new automation. External factors, including general personal trust, are also being measured in order to determine their impact on operator trust and reliance decisions.

FMA 06 — Functional Modelling of Automation


Partner: NSERC
Dates: 2006 - Present
Participants: Jamieson, G.
Description: This research aims to develop a framework for the modelling and design of automation. As an alternative to Rasmussen’s Decision Ladder, the framework would be used to create a psychologically relevant model of the automation that is based on the intentions of the actors rather than information-processing activities. Along with the model of the work domain created using the Abstraction-Decomposition Space, this shared mental model of the automation would then be used for task allocation between human and machine actors and for the design of operator training support tools (e.g., controls, displays and procedures). The framework will be developed and evaluated in the context of designing operator support tools for a petrochemical simulation.

Investigating Soldier Reliance on Automated Combat Identification Aids


Dates: 2013 - Present
Participants: Jamieson, G., Hollands, J., Reiner, A. J.
Collaborator: Defence Research and Development Canada
Description: This project evaluates the benefits of various forms of automation being developed for potential military application. These forms of automation typically focus on increasing soldier awareness or assisting in decision-making during combat. Examples include identify friend or foe combat identification (CID) and automatic target detection (ATD) systems. The current focus of the research is on ATD, which will assist soldiers by highlighting individuals on the battlefield to facilitate improved detection. The goal is to determine how ATD might effect target identification under different conditions, such as varying detection reliability and error rate.

FocalPoint: Adaptive Level of Detail for Network Maps and Attack Graphs


Partner: Uncharted Software Inc.
Dates: 2015 - Present
Participants: Jamieson, G., Carrasco, C. , Kortschot, Sean
Description: In recent years, cyber attacks against network systems have become increasingly prominent. Network maps and attack graphs are visualizations used to identify and correct system weaknesses that may lead to these attacks. Currently, these visualizations are too complex to support appropriate user performance in perception, comprehension, and projection of the cyber battlespace situation. In order to improve situation awareness under these conditions, we will join Uncharted Software Inc. in developing an adaptive system for determining appropriate level of detail (LOD) views for network systems and attack graphs. This adaptive system will involve measurement of both the user’s and the system’s current state in order to determine appropriate levels of information aggregation in a real-time, context-specific manner. While this research project will have direct applications in the cyber domain, the technical approach and methods developed will also be broadly applicable to other forms of adaptive visualizations.
Publications:

View PDF Soh, H., Sanner, S., White, M., & Jamieson, G. (2017, March). Deep Sequential Recommendation for Personalized Adaptive User Interfaces. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (pp. 589-593). ACM.

View PDF Inibhunu, C., Langevin, S., Ralph, S., Kronefeld, N., Soh, H., Jamieson, G., Sanner, S., Kortschot, S. W., Carrasco, C. & White, M., "Adapting Level of Detail in User Interfaces for Cybersecurity Operations", Resilience Week (RWS), TBD, 2016.

AR-WAYFINDING: An Augmented Reality Aid for Wayfinding


Partner: Uncharted Software Inc.
Dates: 2017 - Present
Participants: Jamieson, G., Hollands, J., Reiner, A. J., Vasquez, H.
Description: Wayfinding poses significant technical and human performance challenges, particularly in mission critical and time-sensitive contexts. For instance, military units negotiate unfamiliar terrain in advancing on objectives while maintaining awareness of friendly and hostile forces in the battlespace. Similarly, first responders must quickly locate and move to a crisis site, often seeking alternate routes. In these and many other less urgent situations, individuals correlate their current position in the environment with an abstract representation of that environment (i.e., a map). This task requires both well-designed maps and effective human performance of attention-switching and map interpretation skills. Digital maps try to facilitate this, with features that rotate dynamically to track-up orientation, provide dynamically updated content, annotations (like user position and routing information), time-sensitive indicators (like arrows showing an upcoming turn en-route, etc.), and can aid the user in locating points on the map. When well designed, these features can speed wayfinding. However, digital navigation technologies have not yet overcome the significant problem of context-switching between the head-down navigation aid and the head-up operating environment. Even skilled users of well-designed navigation aides must switch their attention between the map and the world while wayfinding. This attention-switching has negative impacts on task performance. Therefore, we will develop new digital wayfinding support technologies that minimize the need for, and negative effects of, attention-switching during wayfinding by closing the gap between the navigation aid and the operating environment.

Usability of Paper-Based Industrial Operating Procedures


Partner: Cameco Corp., MITACS Accelerate
Dates: 2011 - -1
Participants: Iannuzzi, M.
Description: Procedures are standardized lists of instructions that designate the safe and accepted way of accomplishing a task. As with any other interface, procedures have an aspect of usability that can be broken down into efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction. This study intended to develop and compare the usability of paper-based industrial operating procedures in these categories. An internal audit at a plant that refines low-level radioactive materials cited the operating procedures as a common cause of many recent incidents. Two procedures were redesigned with evidence-based guidelines and human factors input. 16 operators of varying experience were asked to read through and assess the new and old procedures. The new procedures were rated significantly or moderately better than their predecessors over almost all of the categories. Future studies should attempt to discern which particular change in the procedures contributed the most to increased usability, and whether operator experience correlates with the usability ratings.